Updated: Sep 11, 2020

What is FMEA?

A Systematic analysis of the process used to identify potential failure and to prevent their occurrence

FMEA is meant to be a " before the event" action, not an "after the fact" exercise

Types of FMEA

1-System:- Top-level, early-stage analysis of the complex system.

2-Design:- Systems, subsystems, parts & components early in the design stage.

3-Process- Focused on process flow, sequence, equipment. tooling, gauges, inputs, outputs, setpoints, etc.

Benefits of FMEA

Improvement in

  • Safety

  • Quality

  • Reliability

  • by anticipating Potential Failure and improving upon current preventive and defective control

FMEA Characteristic :

  • The FMEA is a living document

  • Should always reflect

the latest level as well as

the relevant action

including those occurring after the start of production and control plants

Basic structure

As AIAG manual there are 8 PFMEA formats, use of Specific format may vary based on the need of organization and the requirement of the customer

fundamentally the format utilized should address :

1- Functions

2-Requirements and deliverable

3-failure modes when functional requirement are not met

4-Effects and consequences of the failure mode

5-Potential causes of the failure mode

6-Actions and controls to address the causes of the failure mode and

7-Action to prevent recurrence of the failure mode

FMEA Required to Identify and understand

  • The Functions

  • Requirements

  • Specifications

The purpose of this activity is to clarify the process purpose

FMEA AIAG Format -Click here

FMEA Number (A):- Enter an alphanumeric string which is used to identify the FMEA documents. this is used to control the documents.

Item (B):- Enter the name of the component for which the process is being analyzed.

Responsibility (C):- Enter the organization, department or group who is process design responsible.

Model (D):- Enter the intended model that will use by the process being analyzed

Key Date (E):- Enter the initial PFMEA due date which should not exceed the scheduled start of production date.

FMEA Date (Orig) (F):- Enter the date of the original FMEA was completed.

Core team (G):- Enter the team members responsible for developing the FMEA.

Prepared By (H)- Enter the name of the engineer/team leader responsible for preparing the FMEA.

Definitions :

1- Failure mode:-means the ways, or modes, in which something might fail. Failures are any errors or defects, especially ones that affect the customer and can be potential or actual.

Example:- missing part, oversized, Undersized, etc.

2-Failure Mechanism:- it is a manner in which a product or a process can progressively fail to meet specification or which can lead failure in other parts of a system and or subsequent process stage.

Example:- corrosion, inaccuracy of measuring devices, etc.

3-Cause:- Causes are the source of variation which are associated with key process inputs (6Ms).

Example:- instruction not followed, lack of experience, incorrect documents, etc.

4-Effect:-Effect is the impact of the customer (both internal and external) if the failure mode is not prevented or corrected.

Example-Customer dissatisfaction, Frequent product breakdown, etc.

Process FMEA Terminology

1-Severity:- an assessment of the seriousness of a failure mode severity applies to the effects only.

2-Occurance:- The likelihood that Specific failure mode is projected to occur.

3-Detection:- The effectiveness of the current process control to identify the failure mode prior to occurring

PFMEA Severity table

PFMEA Occurance Table

PFMEA Detection table

Risk Priority Number (RPN)


There are no "threshold" values, special attention should be given when severity is high.

Recommended Action

Intended to reduce the ranking for

  • Severity

  • Occurrence

  • Detection

Note-1 Severity can be reduced only if the design of the product/process changes.

Note-2 The occurrence can be reduced by Improving preventive controls.

Note-3 Detection Ranking can be reduced by improving the detection controls.